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Medycyna Doświadczalna i Mikrobiologia 2013, 65(1): 57-64

Analiza zakażeń norowirusami i rotawirusami u pacjentów hospitalizowanych w Wojewódzkim Szpitalu Specjalistycznym w Lublinie. Badania retrospektywne
[Analysis of norovirus and rotavirus infections of patients hospitalized in the General Specialist Hospital in Lublin. Retrospective studies.]

E. Puacz , S. Ćwikła, M. Piasecka-Twaróg

Streszczenie

Przeprowadzono analizę etiologii i częstości występowania ostrych zakażeń jelitowych u 20 189 pacjentów hospitalizowanych w szpitalu specjalistycznym w 2011 roku. Wykazano znacząco większą liczbę zakażeń rotawirusowych (176 przypadków, 0,87% hospitalizowanych) niż norowirusowych (118 przypadków, 0,58% hospitalizowanych). Większość zakażeń rotawirusowych (96,6%) odnotowano u pacjentów oddziału pediatrycznego, wskazując także na sezonowość infekcji. Wszystkie zakażenia norowirusowe sklasyfikowano jako pochodzenia szpitalnego.

Abstract

Recent years have brought reports about increasing role of the viruses among the pathogens causing gastro-intestinal acute infections. Among them norovirus and rotavirus dominate. Rotavirus infections are the major reason of nosocomial infections in pediatric wards, and norovirus are the most common factors of epidemiological gastrointestinal infections among adults. The knowledge about epidemiology of nosocomial diarrheas and microbiological characteristics of mentioned viruses is very useful in the process of prevention of spreading infections. The aim of the study was the laboratory diagnostics of etiology factors inducing intestinal infections of hospitalized patients as well as the evaluation of hospital epidemiological situation in terms of gastro-intestinal infections caused by viruses in the year 2011.Methods: Pathogen causing infections was determined on the basis of results of stool samples analysis. Samples were collected from patients with infection’s symptoms. The process of rotaviruses diagnosis was using single-stage membrane test based on immunochromathographic technology, by STAMAR. Norovirus infections were detected by immunoenzymatic third-generation qualitative test “Norovirus RIDASCREEN” by R-Biopharm. Analysis of gastrointestinal infections caused by norovirus and rotavirus was carried out on the basis of diagnostic tests results of infected patients and data from the infection registry of hospital epidemiological surveillance in the year 2011. Reported infections of rotavirus or norovirus were analyzed with regard to gender of patients, hospital ward, time (month) of occurrence and type of infection (nosocomial or non-nosocomial). The data were statistically analyzed using non-parametrical χ2 test of the statistical package SPSS 12.0PL.Results: The results showed considerably greater number of rotavirus infections (176 cases – 0,87% of hospitalized patients) than norovirus infections (118 cases – 0,58% of hospitalized). Majority of rotavirus infections (96,6%) applied to pediatric ward patients, their occurrence indicated seasonality of this infections. All of norovirus infections were classified as nosocomial Conclusions: Following hospital dyscypline increases safety of hospitalized patients and reduction of epidemiological focuses, what was confirmed by relatively low rate of patients diagnosed with defined nosocomial infections.

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